See also R v Penguin Books Ltd. In , Penguin began what would become one of its most important branches, the Penguin Classics , with a translation of Homer 's Odyssey by E.
Between and , the German typographer Jan Tschichold redesigned Penguin books, and left Penguin with a set of influential rules of design principles brought together as the Penguin Composition Rules , a four-page booklet of typographic instructions for editors and compositors. Tschichold's work included the woodcut illustrated covers of the classics series also known as the medallion series , and with Hans Schmoller , his eventual successor at Penguin, the vertical grid covers that became the standard for Penguin fiction throughout the s. By this time the paperback industry in the UK had begun to grow, and Penguin found itself in competition with then fledgeling Pan Books.
By , a number of forces were to shape the direction of the company, the publication list and its graphic design. On 20 April , Penguin became a publicly listed company on the London Stock Exchange; consequently, Allen Lane had a diminished role at the firm though he was to continue as Managing Director.
New techniques such as phototypesetting and offset-litho printing were to replace hot metal and letterpress printing , dramatically reducing cost and permitting the printing of images and text on the same paper stock, thus paving the way for the introduction of photography and novel approaches to graphic design on paperback covers. In May , Tony Godwin was appointed as editorial adviser, rapidly rising to Chief Editor from which position he sought to broaden the range of Penguin's list and keep up with new developments in graphic design.
To this end, he hired Germano Facetti in January , who was to decisively alter the appearance of the Penguin brand. Beginning with the crime series, Facetti canvassed the opinion of a number of designers including Romek Marber for a new look to the Penguin cover. It was Marber's suggestion of what came to be called the Marber grid along with the retention of traditional Penguin colour-coding that was to replace the previous three horizontal bars design and set the pattern for the design of the company's paperbacks for the next twenty years. Facetti rolled out the new treatment across the Penguin line starting with crime, the orange fiction series, then Pelicans, Penguin Modern Classics, Penguin Specials, and Penguin Classics, giving an overall visual unity to the company's list.
There were over a hundred different series published in total. Just as Lane well judged the public's appetite for paperbacks in the s, his decision to publish Lady Chatterley's Lover by D. Lawrence in boosted Penguin's notoriety. The novel was at the time unpublished in the United Kingdom and the predicted obscenity trial not only marked Penguin as a fearless publisher, it also helped drive the sale of at least 3.
Penguin's victory in the case heralded the end to the censorship of books in the UK, although censorship of the written word was only finally defeated after the Inside Linda Lovelace trial of By the end of the s Penguin was in financial trouble, and several proposals were made for a new operating structure.
These included ownership by a consortium of universities, or joint ownership by the Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press , but none of them came to anything. Later changes included the disappearance of 'Harmondsworth' as the place of publication: this was replaced by a London office address. From the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the s when a merger with Viking involved the head office moving into London 27 Wrights Lane, W8 5TZ. A and had been spun off in because of the high complexity of import and export regulations.
Penguin repurchased it in order to extend its reach into the US market, and NAL saw the move as a way to gain a hold in international markets. Irving sued Lipstadt and Penguin for libel in but lost in a much publicised court case. In , Penguin attempted to involve the public in collaboratively writing a novel on a wiki platform. They named this project A Million Penguins. Consonant with Penguin's corporate mission to bring canonical literature to the mass market the company first ventured into publishing the classics in May with the issue of Penguin Illustrated Classics.
The books were distinct from the rest of the Penguin marque in their use of a vertical grid anticipating Tschichold's innovation of and albertus typeface. The series was not a financial success and the list ceased after just ten volumes the same year it began. Penguin returned to classics with the printing of E.
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Rieu's translation of Homer's Odyssey in , which went on to sell three million copies. Penguin's commercial motivation was, as ever, populist; rendering the classics in an approachable modern English was therefore a difficult task whose execution did not always satisfy the critics. As the publisher's focus changed from the needs of the marketplace to those of the classroom the criticism became more acute, Thomas Gould wrote of the series "most of the philosophical volumes in the Penguin series are bad — some very bad indeed.
Since Plato and Aristotle are the most read philosophers in the world today, and since some of these Penguin translations are favourites among professional philosophers in several countries, this amounts to a minor crisis in the history of philosophy. The imprint publishes hundreds of classics from the Greeks and Romans to Victorian Literature to modern classics. For nearly twenty years, variously coloured borders to the front and back covers indicated the original language. The second period of design meant largely black covers with a colour illustration on the front. In , Penguin announced it was redesigning its entire catalogue, merging the original Classics list known in the trade as "Black Classics" with what had been the old Penguin Twentieth-Century Classics list, though the silver covers for the latter have so far been retained for most of the titles.
Previously this line had been called 'Penguin Modern Classics' with a pale green livery. The redesign—featuring a colourful painting on the cover, with black background and orange lettering—was well received. However, the quality of the paperbacks themselves seemed to decrease: the spines were more likely to fold and bend.
The paperbacks are also printed on non-acid-free pulp paper, which, by some accounts, tends to yellow and brown within a couple of years. The text page design was also overhauled to follow a more closely prescribed template, allowing for faster copyediting and typesetting, but reducing the options for individual design variations suggested by a text's structure or historical context for example, in the choice of text typeface. Prior to , the text page typography of each book in the Classics series had been overseen by a team of in-house designers; this department was drastically reduced in as part of the production costs.
The in-house text design department still exists, albeit much smaller than formerly. Recent design work includes the Penguin Little Black Classic series.
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Lane expanded the business in with the publication of George Bernard Shaw 's The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and Capitalism under the Pelican Books imprint, an imprint designed to educate the reading public rather than entertain. Recognising his own limitations Lane appointed V.
Krishna Menon as the first commissioning editor of the series  , supported by an advisory panel consisting of Peter Chalmers Mitchell , H. Bales and W. Several thousand Pelicans were published over the next half-century and brought high quality accounts of the current state of knowledge in many fields, often written by authors of specialised academic books. Aircraft Recognition S82 by R. Saville-Sneath, was a bestseller.
In , the children's imprint Puffin Books began with a series of non-fiction picture books; the first work of children's fiction published under the imprint was Barbara Euphan Todd 's Worzel Gummidge the following year. Another series that began in wartime was the Penguin Poets : the first volume was a selection of Tennyson 's poems D1 in Cohen's Comic and Curious Verse appeared in three volumes over a number of years.
His final major initiative, the division was established as a separate publishing operation from Harmondsworth, and based in West Drayton in Middlesex. Alongside these and other series, the imprint continued another Penguin tradition by producing Education Specials, titles which focussed on often controversial topics within education and beyond.
They included highly topical books such as The Hornsey Affair and Warwick University Ltd , reflecting the student unrest of the late s and contributing to the intense national debate about the purpose of higher education. Other titles featured the radical and influential ideas about schooling propounded by writers and teachers from America and elsewhere.source site
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Penguin Education also published an extensive range of Readers and introductory texts for students in higher education, notably in subjects such as psychology, economics, management, sociology and science, while for teachers it provided a series of key texts such as Language, the Learner and the School and The Language of Primary School Children.
More than 80 teachers, educational journalists and academics signed a letter to the Times Educational Supplement regretting the closure of the influential imprint . Their purpose was to offer in-depth analysis of current affairs that would counter the perceived bias of the newspapers in addition to being the company's response to the popularity of Gollancz 's Left Book Club.
Whereas the Left Book Club was avowedly pro-Soviet, Penguin and Lane expressed no political preference as their editorial policy, though the widespread belief was that the series was left-leaning since the editor was the communist John Lehmann and its authors were, with a few exceptions,  men of the left. Speed of publication and delivery a turnaround of weeks rather than months were essential to the topicality and therefore success of the Specials, Genevieve Tabouis 's anti-appeasement tract Blackmail or War sold over , copies for example.
However even this immediacy did not prevent them being overtaken by events: Shiela Grant Duff 's Europe and the Czechs only made it onto the bookstands on the day of the Munich agreement , but nevertheless went on to be a bestseller. After a hiatus between and , the Penguin Specials continued after the war under the editorship of first Tom Maschler, then after Tony Godwin. In December , Penguin launched nine titles as 'Penguin Shorts'  which featured the iconic tri-band covers. Popular Penguins are presented in a more "authentic" interpretation of the Penguin Grid than that of the Celebrations series, they are correct size, when compared to an original 'grid-era' Penguin, and they use Eric Gill 's typefaces in a more or less exact match for Jan Tschichold 's "tidying" of Edward Young 's original three panel cover design.
The covers are also printed on a card stock that mirrors the look and feel of s and 50s Penguin covers. On the other hand, all of the Popular Penguins series are in Penguin Orange, and not colour-coded in the manner of the original designs and the "Celebrations" titles. The third volume began the alternative practice of colour plates from a variety of sources. Some of the volumes, such as Nikolaus Pevsner 's Leaves of Southwell or Wilfrid Blunt 's Tulipomania were pioneering works of scholarship. Elizabeth Senior edited the series until , after which Nikolaus Pevsner took over and remained editor until the end of the series; the series ran to 76 volumes.
Allen Lane approached Nikolaus Pevsner in for a series of illustrated books that would match the success of the King Penguins. Pevsner recalled his response: "Allen said, 'You have done the King Penguins now and we are going on with them, but if you had your way, what else would you do? Allen said, 'Yes, we can do both,' and that was the end of the meeting. Forty-one volumes were published by the time Pevsner retired from editing in , his work was continued by his editorial assistant on the Buildings of England Judy Nairn and the medievalist Peter Lasko.
Yale University Press acquired the series in when 45 titles had been completed, by they had published 21 volumes, mostly revisions of existing editions. For Penguin the series was a departure from their commercial mainstay of paperbacks as the histories of art were the first large format, illustrated hardback books they had produced. Mobile bookstore launched by Penguin Books India in collaboration with Ms. Satabdi Mishra and Mr. Akshaya Rautaray.